General FAQs

General questions on resistance welding
Usually resistance welders are equipped with a simple pneumatic circuit providing a single force on electrodes.
Some welders are equipped with pneumatic circuit allowing the electrodes to approach the piece to be welded with a lower force. This avoid damages on the piece. It is useful in projection welding.
Other welders are equipped with a more complex pneumatic circuit allowing also to increase the electrode force during or after the welding. This function is called FORGE. It is used mainly in projection welding and high quality alluminium spot welding.



The stepper function enables to compensate the electrodes wear affecting the welds quality. When the electrode diameter enlarges, the contact section area between the electrode and the workpiece increases as well and, as a consequence, the current density (Ampere/mm2) decreases. If the current is maintained at a fixed value throughout the whole electrode life, it will be noticed that the last spots are of a lower quality in comparison with the first ones. The stepper function is used in order to overcome this problem. It gradually increases the current adjustment during the welding process in comparison with the electrodes diameter enlargement: this enables to maintain a constant current density.

It is a technique used for joining metals. During this process, electrical current flows through two pieces of metal thus creating, a heat dissipation between the pieces up to fuse them. Different types of resistance welding exist depending on the type of piece to be welded and on how the current is applied on the pieces:

  • Spot welding
  • Projection welding
  • Butt welding
  • Seam welding

The current needed for the welding is generated by the machine using one of the following technology:

  • AC - single phase supply, alternate current output.
  • DC - three phase supply, rectified secondary to obtain direct current
  • MF - medium frequency direct current, three phase supply, direct current output
  • CD - capacitor discharge


Whit a constant current control unit it is possible to directly set the current value to be used for carrying out the welding process. During the welding process the control unit measures the welding current value, and, on the basis of a correcting mathematical algorithm, it maintains the set current.

This operating mode, besides simplifying the programming, enables to keep the desired welding current even in case of variations of factors such as: mains voltage, welding circuit impedance, status of the welding tools, superficial status of the materials in progress.


Welding current (2) variation in comparison with the mains voltage (1) variation under standard operating mode.


Welding current (2) variation in comparison with the mains voltage (1) variation under constant current operating mode.